Semantics of Line Drawings
Jocelyn Ireson-Paine
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Artists may add lines to indicate form

"The next essential fact always to have at the back of your mind is "form", or the fact that the figure which you are drawing has thickness as well as outline.

If you study closely the great masters of figure drawing in outline, you will be amazed to discover that they manage to indicate the "form" of a body without the use of shading. How is this done? The secret of these clever drawings is often in certain lines on the figure or head and not actually on the outline — a fold, a collar, a cuff, a crease. Look at these lines carefully, and you will observe that they are very correctly drawn, sometimes even more than the actual outline. A simple illustration of this point is in Fig. E, Plate 12."

From L. A. Doust, A Manual on Sketching from Life, 1949.